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Ar-Rahman is often regarded as the 'beauty of the Quran', in accordance with a hadith: Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud reported that the Prophet Muhammad said, "Everything has an adornment, and the adornment of the Qur'an is Surah ar Rahman" [Bayhaqi in Shuab al Eiman]
The main theme of the Surah is giving manifestation and fruits to the attribution of Allah's mercy and grace, which is evident right from the beginning, till the very end.
Definite ar-raḥmānu like Allāh has a long ā that irregularly remains unexpressed in writing, الرحمن, but may be indicated by a diacritic alif. Indefinite raḥmānun on the other hand has an alif, رحمان. It is from the root R-Ḥ-M "to feel sympathy or pity" and as an epithet of God may be translated as "The Beneficent, The Compassionate". It co-occurs with ar-raḥīm in the Basmala: ar-raḥmān, according to Lane, is more intensive, including in its objects the believer and the unbeliever, while 'ar-raḥīm has for its peculiar object the believer.
Surah Al-Rahman . Number of sections (Rukuh) 3 , seventy six or seventy eight verses,three hundred fifty one words and one thousand six hundred thirty six
The general view is that Ar-Rahman is a Makki surah predominantly due to some traditions that have been cited on the authority of Hadrat Abdullah bin Abbas, Ikrimah and Qatadah, it was revealed at Madinah.
Musnad Ahmad contains a tradition from Hadarat Asma, daughter of Abu Bakr (may Allah bless them both), to the effect: "I saw the Messenger of Allah offering his Prayers in the sacred precincts of the Ka'bah facing the corner in which the "Black Stone" is fixed". This relates to the time when the Divine Command, fasda bi-ma tumar ("So, proclaim publicly, O Prophet, what you are being commanded") had not yet been revealed. The polytheists at that time were hearing the words, "Fa-biayyi alaa'i Rabbi kuma tukadhdhi ban" ("Then which of the favours of your Lord will ye deny?"), being recited by him in the Prayer." This shows than this Surah had been sent down even before Surah Al-Hijr. 
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